In November 1996, California voters passed Proposition 218, the “Right to Vote on Taxes Act”. This constitutional amendment protects taxpayers by limiting the methods by which local governments can create or increase taxes, fees and charges without taxpayer consent. Proposition 218 requires voter approval prior to imposition or increase of general taxes, assessments, and certain user fees.
The Environment Prior to Proposition 218
Proposition 13 dramatically changed the California property tax landscape after its passage in 1978. The result was a severe limitation on ad valorem property taxes (property taxes based on assessed value of property). Consequently, local governments had to look elsewhere to find money to fund public services and improvements. These agencies turned to benefit-based assessments, special taxes and user fees, which were not subject to Prop. 13 limitations. However, this resulted in increasing property tax bills, the main concern that Prop. 13 attempted to control.
Proposition 218 Tax Reform
Prop. 218 radically changes the way in which local governments raise revenues by ensuring taxpayer approval of charges and increases to existing charges. Voters are also given the ability to repeal or reduce charges by voter initiative.
Specific Features of Proposition 218
The primary changes put in place by Proposition 218 are explained below.
- Voter Approval on Taxes: Prop. 218 requires all local governments, including charter cities, to get majority voter approval for new or increased general taxes.
- Limits on Use of “General Taxes: Proposition 218 restricts the use of general taxes, which require majority voter approval, to general purpose governments (i.e. cities and counties). School districts are specifically precluded from levying a general tax.
- Stricter Rules on Benefit Assessments: Benefit assessments by definition must be calculated based on the benefit received by the parcel as a result of the project financed. Prop. 218 created stricter rules for initiating or increasing benefit assessments. Now, an agency must determine the specific benefit the project will have on individual parcels. A general enhancement to property values can no longer serve as the benefit.
- Increased Notification and Protest Requirements: Proposition 218 will require that agencies put all assessments, charges and user fees out to a vote prior to creation or increase. In most cases, the vote will require individual notices be mailed to affected property owners. A formal protest hearing is also required to move forward with the charge or increase.
- Restrictions on Use of Fees: Proposition 218 prohibits local governments from imposing fees on property owners for services that are available to the public at large (like garbage collection and sewer service). In any case, fees charged to property owners may not exceed the cost of providing the service.
- Government Owned Property No Longer Exempt: Proposition 218 requires government agencies to pay their fair share of a benefit assessment, if the property receives benefit from the project or service financed.
- Initiative Power To Repeal: Prop. 218 gives voters the power to reduce or repeal any existing local tax, assessment, or charge through the initiative process.
Links to Literature: